havana - Havana has come to an end the life of one of the most controversial leaders of the last century: Fidel Castro Ruz. Hated by Cubans who fled his revolution and dictatorship. Reviled in Washington because US politicians communist rate as flat saw under Florida as a personal insult. And, with millions of Latin Americans, still well liked because Castro finally dared to stand up to the big northern neighbor.
His hour-long speeches at the Revolution Square in Havana, the Cuban state television sometimes five to six hours long poured over the population, especially something said about Fidel himself. The son of a Spanish immigrant wanted anywhere play the boss. No attention parts but claim. That was in it as a child on the estate of his father in Biran and during his time in Havana. And with his tall figure, wagging finger and undeniable charisma, he was for decades the center in Cuba.
When Fidel on January 1, 1959 the dictator Fulgencio Batista fled saw striking, the former law student was not a communist. His brother Raul is. The Argentine comrade Ernesto Che Guevara too. But Fidel grabbed the pass in the months after the coup, in which the relationship with the United States became increasingly ijziger, as a way to justify his place. Cuba expert Kees van Kortenhof 'Castro wanted at all costs to retain power. And communist was the best way. So he was opposition to him as leader, and there was no need to call elections. ''
The contrast between the current impoverished Cuba and fifties could hardly be greater. Batista was corrupt, but the island was one of the richest countries in Latin America. There reason more cars than in post-war Italy. However, the differences in wealth were huge and kept US companies an iron grip over the oil industry and agriculture. Tourists from New York, Chicago and Florida were partying and gambling in hotels that controlled the American Mafia. Castro saw it with horror, but he was not the only who wanted to armed an end to the Batista regime.
After the first unsuccessful attack in 1953 on the Moncada barracks Castro flew to jail in Santiago de Cuba. He was, especially compared to the thousands of prisoners who he would take himself later, excellent treatment. If Castro is released, he traveled to Mexico where he turn the latching enough money after long peddling Cubans in Florida who want to get rid of Batista. Castro buys the boat Granma and sails with a puke sick crew back to Cuba. Not to Havana, but the Sierra Madre, a wooded mountain range in southeastern Cuba.
Those who are visiting remote mountain area, located barely can imagine from here ever managed a revolution. Elderly people in the villages do speak respectfully about the guerrilla tactics of Castro. But it was while Castro puffed on cigars in his secluded mountain cabin, especially students in Havana who committed attacks under the nose of the Cuban police. But Fidel knew the power of propaganda: he invited reporters from his hiding place and appeared to rave stories in the New York Times.
After the revolution had succeeded, Castro turned to bloody dictator. Encouraged by the ruthless Guevara. Batista supporters and other rivals went to the wall. The trauma caused by this are the source of decades of Castro hatred among refugees in Miami. Self appropriated Raúl, Che and other revolutionaries to the most beautiful villas. Castro took up residence at the Hilton hotel, the current Havana Libre. The repression of dissidents exists to this day.
Fidel reign was similar to speeches. With lengthy speeches he tried to bring citizens and bureaucrats. And Fidel took all important decisions. He read everything and could increase with a few hours sleep. The problem: after a few books Castro also considered to be a specialist in every area. William t Wout, Rotterdam nickel trader Fidel knew well: 'It did not matter which, Castro could broach any subject and hours talking about it. ''
Such an example of stubbornness: 'Cuba will produce more milk than France and the Netherlands, '' Fidel oreert late sixties. Cuba missed a good milk production. So Castro thought, I cross myself the Dutch Holstein cow with tropical Zebu. The result- the 'F1'- would wipe out all dairy shortages. But Castro forgot that the Dutch wonderkoe the result of centuries of careful selection. The F1 project failed miserably. In 2014, Cuba imported for two billion dollars of food including milk powder.
The war of words with the United States, because Fidel is returned to the Soviet Union in 1960 led to the seizure of all US property in Cuba. Converted currently adding up to about $ 7 billion. That is the reason for the US embargo. Despite the economic pain Fidel knows but beyond that embargo. Everything goes wrong, he blames the embargo. Even the CIA-backed invasion at the Bay of Pigs in April 1961 achieved the opposite: Fidel is more firmly in the saddle. Castro is then even allow the Russians to secretly place nuclear missiles on the island, which flows into the Cuban missile crisis.
Fidel supported leftist revolutionaries in Latin America and Africa. From the seventies he sent thousands of troops to the front in Angola. His friendship with Arab leaders he perhaps around 1980 delivers the moment of greatest prestige: the predecessor of the unrelated countries. But when the Soviet Union changed, Fidel pruimt who do not glasnost. While, when a coup perpetrated against President Gorbachev, Castro is celebrating. But when the Soviet Union finally falls apart, the faucet comes with cheap Russian oil closed.
The disappearance of the Russian grant leave Cuba destitute. Deep poverty and a lack of everything prevails on the island. If only way Castro sees an opening for tourism and hiring physicians abroad. The latter curtails domestic health care system. Like Hugo Chavez embraces Fidel in 1999 as a new 'father', Castro has found the saving infusion. Cuba survives on 100 000 barrels of Venezuelan oil per day. Internally, the dictator remains adamant: in 2003 he throws 75 prominent political opponents behind bars.
Dan Castro is ill. In 2006 he renounces the daily management. Two years later, brother Raul him as president. Throwing quickly overboard strict communist line. Inefficient state enterprises lay off nearly 600 000 people- out of a population of 11 million. Everyone should learn self cease his pants. 'Raul Castro picks up the debris on the years of mismanagement by Fidel, '' describes Carlos Mesa Lago, one of the most prominent Cuban experts. Fidel meddles not anymore. In state newspaper Granma, he wrote yet most international speculations.
From the streets Fidel vanished before his death. He appeared only on TV, and large images have vanished from him of revolutionary billboards. Raul, the Cuban population as prepared for life without Fidel. Now the regime is likely to use the dead leader like Fidel formerly abused his dead comrades: as martyrs in the pantheon of the revolution. Prints of Che Guevara, Jose Marti and Camilo Cienfuegos shout Cuban citizens from propaganda signs to never lose their faith in the revolution. Later shines communist Fidel also in between: the advertisement.